Course Description: This course is based upon material published in the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology and is available as an open access article.
Abstract Endophenotypes or intermediate phenotypes are of great interest in neuropsychiatric genetics because of their potential for facilitating gene discovery. We evaluated response inhibition, latency and variability measures derived from the stop task as endophenotypes of ADHD by testing whether they were related to ADHD traits in the general population, heritable and shared genetic risk with ADHD traits. Participants were 16,099 children and adolescents, ages 6 to 18 years who visited a local science center. We measured ADHD traits using the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptoms and Normal- Behavior (SWAN) rating scale and performance on the stop signal task (SST)—response inhibition (SSRT), response latency (GoRT), and response variability (GoRTSD). Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship of cognitive measures and ADHD traits while controlling for family, age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and treatment status. Heritability of ADHD and cognitive traits was estimated using SOLAR in 7,483 siblings from 3,507 families that included multiple siblings. Bivariate relationships between pairs of variables were examined. Individuals with greater ADHD trait scores had worse response inhibition, slower response latency, and greater variability. Younger participants and girls had inferior performance although the gender effects were minimal and evident in youngest participants. Inhibition, latency, variability, total ADHD traits, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity scores were significantly heritable. ADHD traits and inhibition, but not latency or variability were coheritable. In the largest study in the general population, we found support for the validity of response inhibition as an endophenotype of ADHD.
This course on response inhibition and ADHD traits is designed for psychologists, professional counselors, social workers, nurses, and licensed mental health professions who do clinical work. This course is appropriate for intermediate and advanced level practitioners who wish to develop their understanding of ADHD and response inhibition. The course material includes a literature review of ADHD endophenotypes. It may also be useful for licensed clinicians who require clinical continuing education courses for license renewal.
The course is based on a journal article which includes research. As such it contains statistical analysis and data which some clinicians enjoy reading and others do not. This is an in depth and complex article that helps practitioners stay current on the latest findings in their field.
Authors: Crosbie et al
Learning Objectives: This course will provide the practitioner with detailed information regarding response inhibition and ADHD traits. Specifically, a professional will:
• Describe the relationship between ADHD and response inhibition and response latency.
• Identify gender and age differences in performance.
• Describe ADHD traits that have been identified as heritable.
Citation: Crosbie, Arnold, Paterson, Swanson, Dupuis, Li, Shan, Goodale, Tam, Strug and Schachar. (2013). Response inhibition and ADHD traits: Correlates and heritability in a community sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 41:497–507.